Thursday, August 27, 2020
Duty regarding inner security may run fromÃ¢ policeÃ¢ toÃ¢ paramilitaryÃ¢ forces, and in uncommon conditions, theÃ¢ militaryÃ¢ itself. (Wikipedia) Threats to Internal security Threats to the general harmony may extend from low-levelÃ¢ civil scatter, enormous scaleÃ¢ violence, or even an armedÃ¢ insurgency. Dangers to inward security might be aimed at either the states residents, or the organs and foundation ofÃ¢ the stateÃ¢ itself, and may run from pettyÃ¢ crime, seriousÃ¢ organized wrongdoing, political or mechanical distress, or even domesticÃ¢ terrorism. Remote forces may likewise go about as a danger to inner security, by either submitting or supporting psychological warfare orÃ¢ rebellion, without actuallyÃ¢ declaring war. Powers and Agencies Governmental duty regarding inner security will by and large rest with anÃ¢ interior service, rather than aÃ¢ defense service. Contingent upon the express, a states inward security will be kept up by either the ordinaryÃ¢ police or law enforcementÃ¢ agencies or increasingly mobilized police powers (known asÃ Gendarmerie). We will compose a custom exposition test on Uncertainty in Nigeria or then again any comparable point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Other specific inward security organizations may exist to expand these principle powers, such asÃ¢ border guards,Ã¢ special police units, or parts of the statesÃ List of insight offices. In certain states, inward security might be the essential obligation of aÃ¢ secret police power. The degree of approved power utilized by offices and powers liable for keeping up inside security may go from unarmedÃ¢ policeÃ¢ to completely armedÃ¢ paramilitaryÃ¢ organizations, or utilize some level ofÃ¢ less-deadly weaponryÃ¢ in between. For rough circumstances, inside security powers may contain some component of military kind gear such asÃ¢ non-military defensively covered vehicles. Be that as it may, enough of definitions and implications. What we are discussing isn't only frivolous violations, outfitted burglaries, and so on, yet fear mongering and bombings, equipped uprising, e. g. the Niger Delta issue, which appeared to have faded away a touch of later, after all the commotion of Amnesty, Jos ethnic/strict killings, Boko Haram slaughters and bombings in Abuja, Maiduguri and other northern urban areas, and so forth. What each Nigerian ought to do is asking and requesting answers on what has been done as such far since October first, 2010 Independence Day Twin Bombing in Abuja FCT. Also various bombings in Maiduguri, Bauchi and Adamawa. Psyche you, these are not the primary occurrences of such frailty. Weakness has been with us most likely since we turned into a Republic, just we chose to turn daze eyes to it. At the point when the CIA report of 2005 anticipated the breakdown of Nigeria in around 15 years time, loyalists and pundits the same responded contrastingly to the report. For me, as much as I needed to excuse it, something continued niggling my psyche this may be a genuine prophetic investigation of the territory of Nigeria. Not on the grounds that the CIA is trustworthy in its security examination, all things considered, they didnt get it option to forestall 9/11 2001 from occurring, however occasions in Nigeria implied that while different nations in the sub-area were creating, Nigeria was retrogressing regardless of its case to vote based system. Individuals expected the then Government of Obasanjo to take this notice as a risk for Nigeria to look inwards, draw in with the report, and work on those prescient lists that could prompt the anticipated disappointment. Be that as it may, inconveniently, the Obasanjo government excused the report in its totality. As it were, the excusal isn't altogether a shock, since our pioneers, throughout the years, are inclined to such propensities for protecting reality from their kin, not mindful as long as it doesn't occur in their time; are in reality uninformed of what is happening around them, and are resolved and overbearing in their tendency. The current general condition of weakness in Nigeria has now loaned weight to the report. It must be reviewed that while the report was discharged at the approach of the alleged Niger Delta emergency, from that point forward a few demonstrations of bombings and killings by the radical Islamic group, Boko Haram, the massacre between ethnic Birom and the Hausa/Fulani in Jos, and the political viciousness that followed following the 2011 Elections results, for the most part in the northern piece of the nation, have additionally solidified the uncertain condition of the nation. Beginning with the standard strict/ethnic situated clashes, to the Jos ethnic/strict/political clash of 2008, lamentably, the northern states have indicated that security of people and properties is still a long way from being feasible. Be that as it may, the current emergency which began in Bauchi and has overwhelmed different states in the north has components of religious stubborn desire in it. While the fundamentalist gathering Boko Harams interest for the discarding of a western personal conduct standard and the burden of severe Sharia law can be portrayed as crazy without a doubt, we ought to similarly see it with all the reality it merits. What the current pattern of savagery is engraving on the mind of Nigerians is that the administration security mechanical assembly is unequipped for ensuring the wellbeing and security of its kin. This would, consequently, sway on the general human security of the individuals as the circumstance advances dread, while simultaneously restricting the people groups capacity to grow monetarily. Simultaneously, the states ability to draw in financial specialists gets constrained because of the uncertainty. For example, states like Enugu and Bauchi that have enormous the travel industry potential would miss out on this front On various psychological oppressor assaults, tune in to what pioneers with political will needed to state: On 9/11: This is a demonstration of war against the United States. Well chase down the fear mongers. They can run however they cannot conceal George Bush London Bombing: Well track down the fear based oppressors and carry them to equity Tony Blair UN House Bombing: Terrorism is a worldwide wonder. May be it is Nigerias turn. Goodluck Jonathan So our preeminent pioneer is stating that, Ã¢â¬Å"why not, itÃ¢â¬â¢s our chance to begin getting blown upÃ¢â¬ . What amount more would it be advisable for us to anticipate? That shows you the profundity of knowledge and care of our pioneers. Security was a driving issue in the last Presidential battle following bomb impact by Niger Delta aggressors and assaults of police by individuals from the radical Islamic gathering, Boko Haram in the northern piece of the nation. President Jonathan battled hard to persuade Nigerians that his administration was meeting those security challenges. In any case, the revolting, for the most part in the North, that followed following his political race brought up issues, which are as yet unanswered, about security readiness. At any rate 800 individuals were said to have been murdered in these Muslim-Christian appointive savagery. Ã¢â¬Å"As president, it is my grave obligation to shield the constitution of this nation. That incorporates the commitment to secure the lives and properties of each Nigerian any place they decide to live,Ã¢â¬ he said Challenges amp; Proposed Solutions: Mr. President ought to recognize the disappointment of the security organizations subsequently there ought to be a finished redesign of the Security Agencies in the region to pre-empt these security penetrates. Specifically, the disappointment of the insight administrations to contain the common security penetrates. The spate of bombings has again brought to spotlight the requirement for a Sovereign National Conference. Until these auxiliary bends and oddities are tended to, the beast of weakness will pose a potential threat and Nigeria will again be recorded as a fear based oppressor country. Mr. President needs to act unequivocally to execute his Office, and this can be accomplished by actualizing the counter fear based oppression law and rebuff offenders of such grievous violations equipped for causing flimsiness in the country. This will vitiate the usage of Mr. Presidents transformational plan. The drawn out impact is that the on-going fear mongering will debilitate possible speculators in Nigeria. At the speed Nigeria is disintegrating, there is a powerful urge for aÃ SOVEREIGN NATIONAL CONFERENCEÃ so that all ethnicÃ¢ nationalitiesÃ¢ can make their stand knownÃ¢ this amalgamated nation. The route forward is for us to continue laying accentuation on the requirement for the advancement of six districts. The alliance should remain however let each locale develop at its own pace. The Western locale has obviously set theÃ¢ pace passing by the consequence of theÃ¢ last political race. All the Western states casted a ballot enormously for the Action Congress party (ACN), a gathering thatÃ¢ is not sufficientlyÃ¢ differentÃ¢ in programs from the Action Party of Chief Obafemi Awolowo. Every area ought to have their own police Force. MOPOL and InterpolÃ¢ could be changed into the main Federal Police split first class group. The rest individuals from the police power ought to be dismantled and coordinated to come back to their districts. It isÃ¢ the obligation of the areas to now retrain, prepare and pay them. Second, the legal executive isn't improving the situation by any stretch of the imagination. This institutionÃ¢ is heavilyÃ¢ compounding our issues. It must truly sit up. Instances of defilement are notÃ¢ meant to be undermined by any stretch of the imagination, not to mention deferring them perpetually. The legal executive should have, at this phase in our turn of events, advanced time scalesÃ¢ for cases. ThereÃ¢ ought to have beenÃ¢ a time to decide a case; time to close that case; and time to deliverÃ¢ judgment and pass sentences. In Nigeria, cases that trouble on debasement and weakness have frequently been undermined therefore the law is done going about as an impediment. What's going on in Jos is too violent to even think about narrating. The perpetual murdering going on in that city has made the interest for territorial governmentt progressively relevant. The nation can't simply keep on falling in line of termination. Most NigeriansÃ¢ do not esteem human lives.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Essay Tips For Writing a Letter Or EmailThe first time you write a letter or send an email it might seem like a difficult task. Writing a good letter to present information or a proposal for a proposal is actually not that difficult. You can get a good start with the following three easy steps.Start by writing the lead paragraph. The lead paragraph contains all the information about the letter and the reader should be able to quickly see what information they need. While this might sound simple, you still want to include information on why they should read your letter and what they can expect from the rest of the letter. It is important to remember to make this paragraph brief and to stress that the reader is in fact reading a letter.Next, continue with the first paragraph. It will most likely contain the basic information about the letter and the proposal. It may also include the opening paragraph, but you can also leave this part blank. It is much easier to write the opening paragr aph than the entire document.After the paragraph you have just written, you can then move onto the second paragraph. This paragraph should also contain the basic information about the letter and the proposal. Just keep it short and to the point.Continue on with the second paragraph. As long as the paragraph is straightforward and does not confuse the reader it should be fine. This paragraph will provide the details on the research you conducted to get the information included in the letter. This is an important paragraph that should be included.Then the final paragraph is needed. This is the meat of the letter. It is also where you summarize everything that has been said throughout the letter. This paragraph should also be short and to the point. It should not leave out any information that needs to be said. To conclude this essay on letter writing essays I want to reiterate that your letter writing essays are not hard to write, but it is important to create a structure that is easy to follow. When it comes to writing a letter, there are three easy steps to follow that I have found very useful.Start with the initial paragraph. Make sure that you write this paragraph short and simple. After this you go through the lead paragraph, and the rest of the letter, following the same structure.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Basic Thinking Assigment - Essay Example So as to get perspectives on understudies confronting this issue, a poll has been created, which is joined to this report. There are five kinds of examining that can be utilized for scholastic research, and they are quickly talked about beneath. Basic arbitrary inspecting is the premise technique which proposes that each individual has equivalent likelihood to be remembered for the example. Orderly Sampling permits each kth individual to get an opportunity to be remembered for the example (Babbie 209). Defined Sampling picks a gathering of people based on specific points of interest and afterward test can be chosen utilizing irregular inspecting (Babbie 212). Accommodation Sampling is the point at which the specialist gives the poll to people regardless of some other imperative and expectations that higher reaction rate can be accomplished (Bryman and Bell 197). Snowball Sampling infers that the specialist moves toward a little gathering of people who at that point request that other s take part in the examination (Bryman and Bell 200). Share Sampling is utilized when the scientist makes test gatherings with the goal that adequate portrayal from the populace based on their socioeconomics can be accomplished (Bryman and Bell 201). With the end goal of the present investigation, accommodation testing has been utilized. The explanation behind this was the analyst sent the poll to 20 understudies and mentioned them to finish it in their own helpful time and submit it by means of email. This has permitted respondents to take as much time as necessary and complete their poll easily. In contrast with this inspecting strategy that has been embraced for the investigation it is gotten that on the off chance that various strategies for testing had been utilized, at that point the specialist could anticipate diverse result. For instance, on the off chance that the example populace was chosen utilizing portion examining, at that point results illustrative of various segment classes could have been accomplished. In addition, for delineated testing a rundown of vehicle proprietors heading to the school would be required to choose fitting example. The reaction rate was 100% as all respondents restored the survey in the wake of finishing it. The poll comprised of 10 inquiries including four segment questions. Discoveries are introduced beneath. Out of 20 respondents, 15 people are females and 5 are guys, and every one of them claims a vehicle and utilizations it to get to the school. Greater part of the respondents are 18-23 years of age. Respondents are taking various courses at the PCCC College. Since, the examination isn't engaged after isolating and breaking down information based on the socioeconomics of respondents in this manner, no further conversation is made with respect to them. All respondents feel that there is a lack of vehicle leaving at the PCCC College. Larger part of the respondents are of the view that they are regularly late in arriving at the school on time since they can't discover appropriate vehicle leaving and they need to leave their vehicles at far areas. Because of the lack of leaving openings in the school, a large portion of the respondents figure they should quit driving vehicles to the school and should utilize different methods of transport. In addition, they feel that the PCCC College the board ought to be considered answerable for giving exchange vehicle parking spot. Based on the discoveries of this report, it is proposed that school organization should lease close by leaving openings from their proprietors and dole out a particular number of parking spot to understudies who drive vehicles to get to the col
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
There is an increasing pressure in contemporary society to create and maintain the perfect body. - Free Essay Example
Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2393 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Sociology Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Critically discuss this statement Throughout time there has been a fascination with constructing the perfect human form. In Ancient Greece, the perfect muscular body was associated with an individual being a hero, a warrior and an athlete and was symbolic of ones sense of arÃÆ'Ã ªte or full potential (Chaline, 2015). Within the Renaissance period, as demonstrated by Da Vincis Vitruvian Man, emphasis centred on physical beauty and symmetry as signifiers as the embodiment of purity, virtue and morality. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "There is an increasing pressure in contemporary society to create and maintain the perfect body." essay for you Create order The rise of imperialism in Western Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries increased the importance of the fit and healthy body has as a reflection of a nations power and military preparedness. As Synnott (1993) elucidates therefore, the body has long been seen as the prime symbol of the self and how it is thought of is historically, socially, sensually, politically and ideologically constructed: [The body may be seen as]Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦a tomb of the soul, a temple, a machine, and the self and much more; it has also been treated accordingly. Bodies may be caressed or indeed killed, they may be loved or hated, and thought beautiful or ugly, scared or profane (p.7-8). In late or post modern society, there are multiple pressures for creating and maintaining a sense of physical perfectionism with contemporary cultures relentlessly promoting the body beautiful (Thomas, 2007). We are constantly presented with images of perfectly formed models, celebrities, athletes and film and television stars (e.g. Grogan, 2008; Orbach, 2010) and social media forums such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram are saturated with visions of individuals finely tuned bodies and versions of themselves they wish to present. For men, current ideals of physical perfectionism are best understood as muscularity in moderation where muscle size and visibility as signs of health, independence and athleticism are paramount but within given parameters of normalcy. For example, the hyper-muscled body that competitive male bodybuilders develop is deemed freakish (Fussell, 1991; Klein, 1993; Monaghan, 2001). For women, the perfect body is more complex to distinguish and is further oppressed by patriarchal ideologies. Feminist scholars have addressed how womens perceptions of their bodies and what is deemed attractive or imperfect are often informed by the male gaze for the purposes of gaining pleasure (e.g. Shildrick, 2002; Garland- Thomson, 2009). Certain forms of embodiment such as being sl ender, toned, petite and sexy are idealised in contemporary Western culture, but how a woman manages her sense of being in a body is problematic. As Markula (2001: 237) highlights, women are presented with the task of managing a host of contradictory continuums which dictates the female body should be firm but shapely, fit but sexy, strong but thin. This negotiation is made more problematic as women have historically been more defined by their bodies, and as a result, objectified in a number of ways. For example, female athletes are often infantilised or sexualised based on their physical appearance regardless of their sporting accomplishments (Hargreaves, 1994). For both men and women therefore, the body is not only viewed as a sign of physical capability allowing us to perform our everyday roles and routines, but is increasingly associated with, and symbolic of, our attractiveness, successfulness and virility (Bauman, 1990). According to Bourdieu (1991), developing a body that relates well amongst contemporary ideologies of physical perfectionism imbues the owner with physical capital which in turn can be transferred into cultural and economic capital enhancing ones status and distinction in a given social field (i.e. sets of localised social relations): The production of physical capital refers to the development of bodies in ways which are recognised as possessing value in social fields, while the conversion of physical capital refers to the translation of bodily participation in work, leisure and other fields into different forms of capital. Physical capital is most usually converted into economic capital (money, goods and services), cultural capital (for example, education) and social capital (social networks which enable reciprocal calls to be made on the goods and services of its members) (p.127). As a result, inhabiting a typically gendered, young, muscular, athletic, virile and able body is valued and brings rewards in a society that values perf ectionism. For example, Monaghan (2002) explores how his muscled body assisted in him in gaining a position as a nightclub doorman which in turn opened up avenues of (hetero)sexual experience. These norms of perfectionism are now so engrained in Western society that the term body fascism has arisen in popular culture to express the oppressiveness inherent in the narrowing of norms about the ideal body (Hughes, 1999: 155). These strict bodily boundaries limit how the body may be imagined and experienced at the expense of alternative expressions of embodiment. According to Pronger (2002) the ubiquity of the fit, slender, muscular body creates a panoptic effect as individuals watch over themselves for any deviations from these norms. Non-normative or less valued bodies such as old, fat, disabled, short, tall bodies or bodies that transgress accepted norms (e.g. female bodybuilders who transgress traditional ideals of femininity) are therefore oppressed or excluded altogether. As Sparke s (1997: 88) iterates some constructions (of embodiment) come to be more equal than others, some come to be more legitimate than others, and some get to be promoted over others. Indeed, as Hughes (1999) points out some bodies, for example the disabled body, is placed as a binary opposite to fascist ideologies of body perfectionism and is used for the very construction of the perfect body. As pressure exists to live up to certain levels of perfectionism there is increasing awareness that the body itself is perfectible through various bodily regimens and modifications. This has resulted in the body being increasingly seen as an object of consumption creating further pressures for individuals to work on their bodies as part of a self-reflexive project (Giddens, 1991; Shilling, 1993; 2003). According to Shilling (2003), engaging in body projects allows people to make strong, public and personal statements about who and what they are within a multitude of social contexts: In the affl uent West, there is a tendency for the body to be seen as an entity which is in the process of becoming; a project which should be worked at and accomplished as part of an individuals self-identity. Body projects still vary along social lines, especially in the case of gender, but there has in recent years been a proliferation of the ways in which both women and men have developed their bodies. Recognising that the body has become a project for many modern persons entails accepting that its appearance, size, shape and even its contents, are potentially open to reconstruction in line with the designs of its owner (p.4; emphasis added). Modifying ones body in line with socially and culturally constructed norms therefore promises control and security and creates space for an individual to situate oneself in the world. As Shilling (2003) suggests, not only can individuals create their own identity through altering the appearance of the body amongst an array of choices but it is their r esponsibility to do so through engaging in modifications and everyday bodily maintenance as a demonstration of diligence and labour. People may therefore choose, and indeed feel pressured, to undertake bodily modifications such as committing to regimes of physical training, disciplining nutritional intake, undertaking plastic surgery and botox, having teeth whitened or piercing, tattooing and scarifying the skin at the bodys surface (e.g. Featherstone, 2000). These modifications are supplemented by daily routines of bodily maintenance such as washing and cleaning, adorning the body with clothing, brushing our teeth, applying makeup and moisturisers, having our haircut in particular ways and undertaking techniques that remove hair from certain body parts. Such pressures perhaps contribute to the continual obsession with gym culture in contemporary society. The gym offers a space where physical labour (which is constantly declining in an increasingly technological world) is reprodu ced promising the construction of a strong, powerful, functional, independent, desirable body and offering potential for the transformation of the self. As Fussell (1994) observes, the built body in contemporary, capitalist, visual, aesthetic society has more symbolic and cultural importance than it is has usefulness in the production of labour: The bodybuilder is a perversion of puritanism, and utilitarianism. He doesnt use his muscles to build bridges, but to raise eyebrows. They are at once functionless, yet highly functional (p.45). Gyms are thus important social spaces where individuals are encouraged to work their bodies like a project through which they can transform or maintain their body-self identities. As Fussell (1994: 57) continues of bodybuilders the muscular body, the picture of eternal adolescence, is their dominant dream, and the gym their nightly launching pad. In affluent Western society of course individuals are presented with an ever increasing choice of he alth and fitness regimes, diets, and bodily practices which they may engage in. However, it is important to critique the freedom to which individuals are really afforded in these practices. For Foucault (1981), there is less choice of what we do with our bodies than we are conscious of as we are placed under multiple cultural confines and constructs of perfectionism and normalcy. Engaging in a body project is therefore not exclusively an expression of individual agency, but is policed through the adherence, or docility as Foucault called it, to dominant cultural discourses. As Bourdieu (1990: 63) asserts, there is a causal relationship between the social and the corporeal, and so accordingly we must see society written into the body, into the biological individual and vice versa. The increasing pressures to conform to and commit to achieving the perfect body have been highlighted as contributory factors to compulsory and obsessive behavioural disorders such as anorexia nervosa, b ulimia and most recently the phenomena of bigorexia amongst men (Ahmad, Rotherham Talwar, 2015). Increased consciousness of the body and perceived inability to embody ideals of perfectionism has also been linked with self-dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and negative wellbeing (Grogan, 2008). There is also increasing suggestion that people are taking more risks to achieve perfect bodies including taking supplements, steroids and dietary pharmaceuticals (Monaghan, 2001). Embarking on a body project as an attempt to transform the self into socially and culturally constructed visions of perfectionism therefore problematic. Furthermore, as Shilling (2003: 5) reminds us, bodies are doomed to fail as they inevitably age and decay, become sick and injured, and are not always malleable in the ways that we desire bodies are limited not only in the sense that they ultimately die, but in their frequent refusal to be moulded in accordance with our intentions. Offering some reflections, it is evident that within late or post modern society that is aggressively aestheticised (Featherstone, 1991) the vision of the perfect body takes centre stage. As a result, pressures exist for people to embody perfected physical forms. Although there are plenty of examples of people who reject these norms and take measures to differentiate or individualise themselves in alternative ways (e.g. through non-normative tattoos) in general there are demands for us to present and perform our bodies in particular ways. The perfect body is of course mythical. Participants in numerous studies in a variety of contexts have reported how they are never happy with their bodies no matter how much work they undertake on them (e.g. Monaghan, 1999). Bodily perfectionism should therefore be better conceptualised as a socially constructed ideology dependent on time, culture, space and an individuals biography and subjectivities and is ultimately impossible to achieve. Perhaps promoting this understan ding and how the perfect body does not exist in a fixed, essentialist, homogeneous way but rather is better seen as fluid, constructed and heterogeneous could offer a number of benefits and ways to ease the pressures that people experience with regards to anxiety with their bodies. For example, recognising the impossibilities and constructions of physical perfectionism may allow people real freedom to create unique self-reflexive body projects where multiple versions of perfectionism may be imagined. Promoting these variable body projects (Monaghan, 2001) promises more fulfilling body-self relationships, less risky bodily practices, opportunity for empowerment and increases in overall embodied wellbeing. References Ahmad, A., Rotherham, N. Talwar, D. (2015) Muscle dysmorphia: One in 10 men in gyms believed to have bigorexia. BBC Newsbeat. Online article (accessed 22nd October 2015): https://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/article/34307044/muscle-dysmorphia-one-in-10-men-in-gyms-believed-to-have-bigorexia Chaline, E. (2015) The Temple of Perfection: A History of the Gym. London: Reaktion Books. Bauman, Z. (1990) Thinking Sociologically. Oxford: Blackwell. Bourdieu, P. (1991) Language and Symbolic Power. Harvard: Harvard University Press. Featherstone, M. (1991) Postmodernism and Consumer Culture. London: Sage. Featherstone, M. (2000) Body Modification: An Introduction. In: Featherstone, M. ed. Body Modification. London: Sage. Foucault, M. (1981) The History of Sexuality (Volume 1). Harmondsworth: Penguin. Fussell, S.W. (1991). Muscle: Confessions of an Unlikely Bodybuilder. Poseidon Press. Fussell, S. (1994) Bodybuilder Americanus. In: Goldstein, L. ed. The Male Body: Features, Destinies, Exposures. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, pp. 43-60. Garland-Thomson, R. (2009). Starring: How We Look. New York: Oxford University Press. Giddens, A. (1991) Modernity and Self Identity: Self and Society in Late Modern Age. Cambridge: Polity Press. Grogan, S. (2008) Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women and Children. Hove New York: Routledge. Hargreaves, J.A. (1994) Sporting Females: Critical Issues in the History and Sociology of Womens Sports. London: Routledge. Hughes, B. (1999) The constitution of impairment: modernity and the aesthetic of oppression. Disability and Society, 14 (2), pp. 155-172. Klein, A. (1993) Little Big Men: Bodybuilding Subculture and Gender Construction. New York: SUNY Press. Markula, P. (2001). Firm but shapely, fit but sexy, strong but thin: the postmodern aerobicizing female bodies. In: A. Yiannakis M.J. Melnick (Eds.), Contemporary Issues in Sociology of Sport. Champaign: IL: Human Kinet ics, pp. 237-258. Monaghan, L. (1999) Creating The Perfect Body: A Variable Project. Body Society 5 (2-3), pp. 267-90. Monaghan, L. (2001) Bodybuilding, Drugs and Risk. London: Routledge. Monaghan, L. (2002) Opportunity, Pleasure and Risk: An Ethnography of Urban Male Heterosexualities. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 31 (4):440-477. Orbach, S. (2010). Bodies. London: Profile Books Pronger, B. (2002) Body Fascism: Salvation in the Technology of Physical Fitness. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Shildrick, M. (2002) Embodying the Monster: Encounters with the Vulnerable Self. London: Sage. Shilling, C. (1993) The Body and Social Theory: 1st Ed. London: Sage. Shilling, C. (2003) The Body and Social Theory: 2nd Ed. London: Sage. Sparkes, A.C. (1997) Reflections on the socially constructed physical self. In: Fox, K. ed. The Physical Self: From Motivation to Wellbeing. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, pp. 83-110. Synott, A. (1992) Tomb, temple, machi ne, self: The social construction of the body. British Journal of Sociology, 43, 79-110. Thomas, C. (2007). Sociologies of Disability, Impairment, and Chronic Illness: Ideas in Disability Studies and Medical Sociology. London: Palgrave MacMillan.
Friday, May 15, 2020
The University of Arizona is a public research university with an acceptance rate of 84%. Located in Tucson, University of Arizona has well-respected programs ranging from engineering to photography. The university is a member of the Association of American Universities because of its strengths in research and education. In athletics, the Arizona Wildcats compete in the NCAA Division I Ã¢â¬â¹Pac 12 Conference. Considering applying to University of Arizona? Here are the admissions statistics you should know, including average SAT/ACT scores and GPAs of admitted students. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, University of Arizona had an acceptance rate of 84%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 84 students were admitted, making UAs admissions process somewhat competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 39,941 Percent Admitted 84% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 23% SAT Scores and Requirements University of Arizona has a test-optional standardized testing policy. Applicants to UA may submit SAT or ACT scores to the school, but they are not required for admission to most programs. Note that applicants to the Honors College and the colleges of Engineering, Fine Arts, Nursing, Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture are required to submit SAT or ACT scores. In addition, those applicants who want to be considered for merit scholarships must submit SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 53% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 540 650 Math 530 660 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that of those students who submitted scores during the 2017-18 admissions cycle, most of University of Arizonas admitted students fall within the top 35% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to University of Arizona scored between 540 and 650, while 25% scored below 540 and 25% scored above 650. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 530 and 660, while 25% scored below 530 and 25% scored above 660. While the SAT is not required, this data tells us that a composite SAT score of 1310 or higher is competitive for University of Arizona. Requirements Note that for most applicants, University of Arizona does not require SAT scores for admission. For students who choose to submit scores, note that UA does not superscore SAT results; your highest composite SAT score from a single test date will be considered. University of Arizona does not require the essay portion of the SAT. ACT Scores and Requirements University of Arizona has a test-optional standardized testing policy. Applicants to UA may submit SAT or ACT scores to the school, but they are not required for admission to most programs. Note that applicants to the Honors College and the colleges of Engineering, Fine Arts, Nursing, Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture are required to submit SAT or ACT scores. In addition, those applicants who want to be considered for merit scholarships must submit SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 54% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile English 20 27 Math 20 27 Composite 21 28 This admissions data tells us that of those who submitted scores during the 2017-18 admissions cycle, most of University of Arizonas admitted students fall within the top 42% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to UA received a composite ACT score between 21 and 28, while 25% scored above 28 and 25% scored below 21. Requirements Note that University of Arizona does not require ACT scores for admission for most applicants. For students who choose to submit scores, note that UA does not superscore ACT results; your highest composite ACT score will be considered. University of Arizona recommends, but does not require, the ACT writing section. GPA In 2018, the middle 50% of University of Arizonas incoming class had high school GPAs between 3.75 and 3.99. 25% had a GPA above 3.99, and 25% had a GPA below 3.75. These results suggest that most successful applicants to University of Arizona have primarily A grades. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph University of Arizona Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex. The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to the University of Arizona. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting inÃ with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances The University of Arizona, which accepts over three-quarters of applicants, has a somewhat selective admissions process. If your class rank and GPA fall within the schools average ranges, you have a strong chance of being accepted. UA also considers the rigor of your high school courses and your level of commitment to extracurricular activities and work experience. While UA does not require aÃ personal statement, applicants may choose to submit one if they believe it will add to their application. Note that some programs at University of Arizona are more selective than others, and standardized testing requirements vary depending on intended program of study. University of Arizona offers Assured Admission for residents of Arizona. Eligible applicants must attend an accredited high school, rank in the top 25% of their class, and have no deficiencies in required coursework or have an unweighted GPA of 3.0 or higher in core requirements. In the graph above, the blue and green dots represent accepted students. You can see that the majority of successful applicants had A or B averages in high school, and they had combined SAT scores of about 950 or higher and ACT composite scores of 18 or higher. Having scores and grades above that lower range clearly increases your chance of acceptance. Since UA is test-optional for most applicants, grades are more important than standardized test scores for admission. If You Like the University of Arizona, You May Also Like These Schools University of Texas - AustinUniversity of KansasTexas State UniversityUniversity of IowaArizona State University All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and University of Arizona Undergraduate Admissions Office.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The American dream is based upon the drive to become successful in life. It is a social ideal that having both freedom and liberty will include opportunity for prosperity and success in America. America is the land of opportunity. We are the home of freedom and liberty. Any man, immigrant or native born, all want the same thing. That is to make money. The reason why I put so much emphasis on man is that during this period in America and when the American dream was the most emphasized was during the industrialization period. During this time, a man would want to have a good job and make money in order to support his family and home. A poor kid who lived in the slums would want to work hard and have perseverance in order to build up from theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"The worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first billionaire,Ã¢â¬ was not only the figure head to the motor industry but was also a major philanthropist to American society (Curcio 1). FordÃ¢â¬â¢s story is the American Dream. Without going through the obstacles Ford faced he may not have been able to prosper as much as he did. He was born into the poor middle class, just like Benjamin Franklin, where he was stuck on the farm. He would have stayed a farmer his whole life if he did not have the drive of tinkering with mechanics under his belt. Ã¢â¬Å"From the moment Ford was a boy he knew farming for the rest of his life was not going to be his niche.Ã¢â¬ While Ford found farming hard, tedious and inefficient, he was drawn to anything mechanical. He used that drive to build his business up from the ground. So, he ran away from the farm to build a better life. Ã¢â¬Å"The year 1876, age thirteen, reflected the larger struggle of HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s early life, one that was symbolically divided in two. The death of his mother marked the close of his rural childhood and the past. The discovery of steam, engines, watches and other mechanical marvels that clanked and whirr ed propelled him into the futureÃ¢â¬ (Curcio 8). Anything that ticked, Ford had to know how it worked and what it did. Detroit was a perfect place to go in starting his career in the auto business. DetroitÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was booming and needing of a young man like Ford to work as an apprentice inShow MoreRelatedThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay1465 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Great Gatsby (2013), directed by Baz Luhrmann, is a contemporary construct of the original novel written by F. Scott Fitzgerald in 1925. The essence of this film is to portray the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ as understood in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s. The film (as well as the novel) contains many themes that correlate to the depiction of the story. The main notable themes that are embodied throughout the motion picture are social class, love, wealth, isolation, and hope. Nick Carraway, whom the film is focalized, communicatesRead MoreDepicting the Difference Between Reality and Illusion in Ã¢â¬ËA Streetcar named DesireÃ¢â¬â¢ by Tennessee Williams and Ã¢â¬ËThe Great GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢ by F.Scott Fitzgerald1740 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCompare and Contrast the ways in which both texts portray individuals in the grip of dreams and illusions Ã¢â¬ËA Streetcar named DesireÃ¢â¬â¢ by Tennessee Williams and Ã¢â¬ËThe Great GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢ by F.Scott Fitzgerald both depict the conflict between reality and illusion centring on the desire to achieve the Ã¢â¬ËAmerican dream,Ã¢â¬â¢ which causes many characters in the texts to become engulfed in dreams and fantasy. Gatsby and Blanche are the protagonists of the texts not only due to their central role in the plots, butRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1279 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe novel, The Great Gatsby, by F.Scott Fitzgerald is about the failure of the American dream in the roaring twenties. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Strategic and Performance Management. Answer: Introduction The purpose of the following assignment, which is going to be formed as a profound report is to identify the implications and consequences of workplace changes on both the employees and the human resource management of the business organizations. More precisely, the report aims to make an in-depth evaluation of an anticipated future workplace change, which is the election of the leaders by the employees. The report will henceforth concentrate on underpinning the implications of the particular future workplace change on the employees, management and on the operation of the Human resource management of organizations. The trend of electing leaders by the collective perspective of the employees is a trend maintained by those business organizations, which follows the democratic style leadership/management style. In Australia, HRM policies for any management practice and any Organization should maintain providing equal employment opportunities and an anti-bullying and anti-harassment atmos phere to the working individuals. However, it is to mention in this respect that according to the Australian human resource management philosophy, the trend of organizing meetings between employees and the senior managers has been introduced currently. Implication for the employees If an organizations workplace culture will change to a circumstance, where the employees will be given the opportunities to select their leaders, then the most possible implication of that situation on the employees would be favorable. According to Cameron and Green. (2015), an organization starts to provide the freedom to the employees by the terms of providing them the scope to elect their managers, when the organization realizes the adverse impact of employee dissatisfaction and disappointment. In other words, failure of the bureaucratic management leads an organization to adopt democratic management or leadership style in which employees are provided with the privilege to take equal role in the decision-making process (Hayes, (2014). Therefore, prior to evaluate implication of the considered change workplace circumstance on the employees, it should be contemplated that the opportunity for the employees to elect their preferred leaders is capable in motivating and empowering emplo yees. However, the important aspect to evaluate in this respect is that providing the power to elect preferred leaders in terms of a change corporate culture implicates that, employees should acquire more skills and profound insight about the attributes of their senior. It is because of the fact that if an organization would start relying on their employees for making decisions about new leaders, it would surely expect impressive amount of knowledge and experience in the particular field from the employees (Frankland et al., 2013). Henceforth, it is understandable that in this case, the implication is employees would have the chance to work flexibly as well as they will possibly find different ways of working. Prior to select a preferred individual, employees should have the potentiality to identify whether their desires and expectations related to work would be prioritized and fulfilled by their elected individual or not. On the other hand, it should be contemplated here that a change management like the considered one can also bring several challenges for an organization. According to Van Dooren et al., (2015), when an enterprise starts to depend on their employees for selecting leaders, it provides the opportunity to the employees to form numerous Unions. Moreover, it has been found that Unions play a strong role in electing any particular leader, which gives birth to passive aggression among the employees and further opens door for internal conflict. More precisely, it has been identified that the Union leaders hugely manipulate employee decisions regarding election, which later turns to internal conflict, passive aggression and even physical harassment. Consequently, organizations receive low productivity and disappointing relationship among employees and management. For example, it can be said that recently in most of the Australian organizations like Eagle Boys, BlueScope and Florigene it has be en identified that the decision to rely on employees and employee Unions for selecting leader has not supported the organizations to acquire success rather it turn to out to be a serious cause of conflict among the employees (Mir Pinnington, 2014). However, in this context it should be contemplated that employee empowerment in term of giving them the ability to select their preferred leaders can possibly bring the confidentiality issue. In time of election, employees are provided with detail information about the alternative participants, which have the chances to be manipulated or leaked to third parties (Fee, 2014). According to the Fair Work Ombudsman of Australia, one of the protected employee rights under industrial activities is to be involved in creating Union or employer association. Therefore, it is understood and can be underpinned that the privilege to elect leaders for the employees would work positively for preserving the employee rights for industrial activities according to Fair Work Ombudsman (Snell et al., 2015). HRM (Human resource management) implications For the HRM department of any organization, whose main concern is to constantly maintain effective working culture for performance management, in the considered topic of performance management the department will be responsible for employing convenient policies for both the employees and the managers/leaders. However, prior to identify the required policies, which should be taken by the HRM in time of change management, it is significant to have a look on all the probable human reactions that a HRM department can receive. If an organization chooses to provide the empowerment to the employees in terms of giving them the opportunity to elect their leaders, then initially denial, anger and antagonism can arise from the management ground and from the existing team leaders (Armstrong Taylor, 2014). On the other hand, passive aggression and depression can be found from both the employee and management departments. Therefore, it can be said that all the three human dispositions to change, which are acceptance, compliance and rejection would be prevalent in the considered situation (Shields et al., 2015). Thus the implication for the HRM department would be to establish policies and strategies, which would accompany the organization to combat all the possible resistance. According to Ulrich (2013), in a situation of change management, the Human resource department of an organization should act as a change agent. Therefore, if a business organization decides to bring a workplace change like allowing employees to elect their leaders, then the primary implications for the department of HR management would be - Design a structured framework in accordance with the fundamental requirements of the change Make alignment between employees and the existing managers Ensure the mission and vision statement regarding the new workplace change are articulated equally Establish policies to manage and mitigate resistances and all the possible risks. Considering these predominant implications, it can be said that for accomplishing the goal of empowering employees by providing them the responsibility to elect their leaders, HRM should abide the theoretical underpinning of Dave Ulrich. According to the model of HR roles, there are four key roles, which a HRM department of an organization should maintain as a business partner, as a change agent, as an administration expert and as an employee advocates (Ulrich et al., 2013). More precisely, when an organization will consider the present aspect of workplace change, it will find strong resistance from the management ground. Consequently, the organization would probably encounter manipulation upon the workers by the leaders. Following the first step of Ulrichs model, HRM should act as a business partner to effectively collect individual perception regarding the new change and spread it among the others (Ulrich et al., 2013). Ulrichs second strategy says that HR in time of adopting any particular change should act as a change agent. By being a change agent, HRM would be accountable to make an effective internal communication to both communicate the need of the considered change and individual job description (Rothaermel, 2015). Considering the present case, it can be said that following the second strategy, HRs of organization would update new responsibility for the employees and would collect feedback from both leaders and the employees. However, following the third and fourth strategic policies designed by Ulrichs model, HRM should act as administration expert and employee advocate. By being employee advocate, HRM would maintain a survey upon the leaders and the employees to ensure that employees understand their new responsibility to select appropriate leaders. On the other side, through the survey, the HRM would ensure whether the present managers are making any manipulations upon the employees or not (Ulrich, 2013). Nevertheless, by acting as a administrative expert, HRM would enhanced the role of labor law as privilege to select leaders is an example of empowerment. Implications for the leaders and managers The considered workplace change is about leaders being elected by the employees, which is strongly indicative of the fact that existing leaders, managers or the potential ones should make fruitful modification upon their exiting skills. Elaborately, it can be said that in a workplace transformation like the considered one it becomes the potential responsibility of the leading individuals to become the preferable one for the employees (Breevaart et al., 2014). Henceforth, the apt implication of the considered change workplace scenario is that the leaders as well as the management would have to work more actively and supportively with the subordinates. More precisely the implications are as follow Motivate employees by applying transformational leadership The consideration of providing employees the scope to elect their leaders means leaders should allow themselves to participate more with the subordinates to accomplish every single task. In accordance with this opinion, it can be said that the organizations should consider the transformational leadership style. According to the thematic concept of transformational leadership, leaders should work hand in hand with the subordinates in order to find out the need for change and thereafter to initiate necessary implementation for change through inspiration (Dumdum et al., 2013). In other words, through transformational leadership both existing managers/leaders and their subordinates find the chance to increase the level of dedication and performance of others with motivation and morality. It should be regarded in the respect that the intention of providing employees the privilege to elect leaders is to teach leaders and managers to show more support to the workers by being actively engage d. In this context, it is to keep in mind that an employee would generally elect a person, who is capable of motivating as well as appreciating them for their dedications and accomplishments. Therefore, it is understandable that motivation is a powerful aspect that can help an individual to become a preferred leader by the cumulated opinions of his/her subordinates (Dvir et al., 2015). Most importantly, in terms of performance management, this particular implication of the considered change in organization is indicative of the fact that the leaders and the managers are finding the opportunity to improvise their subordinates and their own effectiveness (Hon et al., 2014). Thus such a change implicates that management could both review and monitor the work objectives of the employees and their entire contribution to the enterprise. Implication for improving interpersonal relationship Scopes for employees to choose their preferred leader provide opportunities for improving interpersonal relationship and skills. In the words of Clegg et al., (2015), both performance management and interpersonal relationship between management and employees depends chiefly upon the way a management provides leadership to the subordinates. It has also been identified that the key base for occupying a convenient interpersonal relationship is possible through effective communication. As per Langley et al., (2013), it is the accountability of the leaders or the management to control the behaviors of the subordinates and maintains effective interpersonal bond between them. Organizational change in terms of providing privilege to elect leaders to the employees opens up scopes for managerial individuals to satisfy the subordinates by increasing premises and situations for making interpersonal bonds. In this case, it can be said that main implication of the change situation for individual m anagers is to improvise their existing relationship with the workforce, so that they prioritize their individual potentiality and make preference for them in time of election. In the words of Jeston and Nelis (2014), an effective interpersonal relationship in business organizations is determined by flexible communication. The key to maintain a flexible communication within an enterprise is to share all the vital information and thereafter listen to the opinions and feedbacks of the other side. Henceforth, the considered topic of change implies to the managers that they should procure policies and procedures to acquire employee feedbacks on a regular basis. In terms of employing an efficient communication, this premise of change management indicates that communication system following top-down and bottom-up model. In this context, it should be denoted that with the help of top-down communication design, an organization efficiently shares vital information to the employees, whereas with the help of bottom-up design an organization receives information from the bottom line. In other words, with the implementation of bottom-up communication, the managers will be able to obtain information regarding employee values, opinion and employees needs (Hon et al., 2014). In case an organization is willing to start providing the privilege to their employees in terms of giving them the right to elect their leader, then the situation implies to the existing management that, bottom-up communicational approach is essential to be implemented. More specifically, combine performance of top-down and bottom-up communication is the key for maintaining flexible communication. Implication of risk With the new culture of selecting leaders through the votes of employees, authorities of any organization can come face-to-face with strong resistance from the existing leaders or management grounds. Behind such a statement, there are numerous reasons, which are Existing managers or leaders can show strong resist due to the anticipation of losing their present position. Giving chance to the employees for election means employee empowerment, which helps the employees to reveal any inappropriate act of management or leadership within the organization (Dumdum et al., 2013). If an organizations runs with autocratic management, then in case of having a change management as such could find resistance from the leaders in terms of constraints as chance of electing preferred leader is considered as an act of democratic management. Therefore, existing managers may resist for avoiding their privileges to rule according to their wish. For example, in Australia when McDonald decided to provide the privilege to their worker to select their team leaders, initially strong resistance had been replied from their management ground. Conclusion From the above report, it is understandable that if an organization chooses to provide privilege to their employees to select their leader, then it would influence the operational activities of employees, human resource department and the departments of management. The report has implied that such a change in workplace would imply the leaders to become transactional and transformational leader. It has been also drawn that leaders need to improvise their interpersonal bond with their subordinates. On the other side, the considered premise of change implies that disappointing amount of resistance would come from the management ground as it would harm their positions chiefly. However, according to the assignment, the HR department in such a situation would require to follow the model of Ulrich, which underpins four key strategies becoming business partner, becoming change agent, administration expert and employee advocate. References Armstrong, M., Taylor, S. (2014).Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers. Breevaart, K., Bakker, A., Hetland, J., Demerouti, E., Olsen, O. K., Espevik, R. (2014). Daily transactional and transformational leadership and daily employee engagement.Journal of occupational and organizational psychology,87(1), 138-157. Cameron, E., Green, M. (2015).Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers. Clegg, S. R., Kornberger, M., Pitsis, T. (2015).Managing and organizations: An introduction to theory and practice. Sage. Dumdum, U. R., Lowe, K. B., Avolio, B. J. (2013). 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Ulrich, D., Zenger, J., Smallwood, N. (2013).Results-based leadership. Harvard Business Press. Van Dooren, W., Bouckaert, G., Halligan, J. (2015).Performance management in the public sector. Routledge.